Elounda

Elounda, Crete, Greece, Karma Travel. creteisparadise.wordpress.com

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Ierapetra

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I am visiting the ‘Nymph of the Libyan Sea’, as Ierapetra is called by the locals.

This city, I’m told, enjoys fabulous, mostly dry and warm weather all year long.  Certainly, the weather didn’t disappoint when I visited.

Ierapetra is an ancient city, and has existed at least since the Minoan period.  At that point, it competed with Phaistos in terms of its importance.  In the 3rd century BC, its inhabitants sided with King Philip v of Macedon and Spartan Pirates to overtake an alliance including Rhodes, Byzantium, Pergamum, Athens and Knossos in the Cretan War, which in the end was won by Rhodes and Knossos.   Nevertheless, Ierapetra remained an independent city, until it was conquered by the Romans in 67 BC.  Some Roman ruins still remain, mainly in the harbor.

In 824 AD, Ierapetra was invaded and viciously destroyed by the Arabs.  Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Venetians made it a prosperous city once more.  A few of the Venetian palaces from this era still remain.  As the rest of Crete, Ierapetra was also conquered by the Ottomans. A mosque remains in the old town, ‘Kato Mera’, as testimony of this period of the city’s history.  I’ve spent a good portion of the afternoon wandering about this part of town, with medieval streets, with narrow alleyways and cul-de-sacs which make for postcard-perfect pictures.   I quite liked a church dedicated to St George (Agios Giorgos), with its wooden ‘blind domes’.

If you want to visit Ierapetra and find out more about its history and flavours -I’m told that the raki here is the best in Crete- ask the experts!  Contact Karma Travel and they will be able to sort out your travel needs, from transport, accommodation and guided tours to visits to local raki distilleries and olive groves.

 

 

Agios Nikolaos

Agios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece creteisparadise.wordpress.com

After the peace and quiet of Psiloritis, I thought I needed a spot of people-watching in a bustling, vibrant place, so I came to Agios Nikolaos.

This town has a ‘bottomless’ lake (Voulismeni), which connects with the sea via a narrow inlet.  The lake is  lined with cafés, pizzerias, and tavernas with parasols all along.  On a balmy night, this was quite the place to be!

This was one of the first places in Crete to see touristic development, and it remains very popular with locals and foreign tourists alike.  It still features a commercial harbour, which exists since the times when the Venetians ruled Crete.  This was a particularly good spot for a major harbour, because it is sheltered by two small islands (where fortresses were built to guard the port), and it’s also sheltered from the sometimes vicious northwesterly winds that sweep other parts of the island.  The two small islands facing Agios Nikolaos are also home to an endangered species of wild goats, called ‘agrimia’.

On a morning stroll along the marina, I could see some dazzling yachts docking here.  I must confess I was a bit curious as to who were the owners of such lavish floating palaces.  Unable to find out any gossip worth mentioning, I was rather happy to find a small café selling wonderful crepes just by the slipway and indulge in a nutella-filled pocket of yumminess!

To plan your trip to Agios Nikolaos and obtain all-important information on the wide variety of options of accommodation on offer here, as well as activities including diving, yachting, golf, and visits to nearby monasteries and archaeological sites, contact Karma Travel!  They will be able to offer reliable help and advise.

Psiloritis

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I’ve gone to explore a mythical mountain this time. Having spent all that time seeing Mount Psiloritis (also known as Mount Ida) as a backdrop to many places I have visited, I had to go and see the mighty giant for myself. This is Crete’s tallest mountain, at 2,454m above sea level. The climb is demanding and quite exhausting. It’s not something I could easily have done in one go. Luckily, there are hiking shelters and my place in one of these was reserved in advance by helpful Karma Travel. At the very top stands a small and rustic stone chapel dedicated to the Holy Cross (Timios Stavros) which holds the prayers of many pilgrims.

This mountain has its place in mythology as the birth place of Zeus. His mother, the Titaness Rhea, went to the Idaean Cave when her delivery time was approaching.  She squatted in the cave and pressed her fingers into the ground, so giving life to the Dactyls, small finger-like beings who were smiths and magicians, and would protect Zeus.  Her baby would stay in the cave to guard him from Chronos, his father, who had eaten all five  previous children she bore him for fear of a prophecy -he had been told by his parents that one of his children would dethrone him.

Hidden in the cave, Zeus was raised by a goat, Amalthea. A company of Kouretes helped conceal him, and they spent all their time making raucous noises in a continued effort to hide the baby’s crying, lest Chronos should hear him. When Zeus attained manhood, he confronted Chronos and forced him to disgorge all his siblings.  Zeus also freed the Giants, the Hekatonkheires and the Cyclops.  To show their appreciation, they gave him the gift of lightning, and helped fight and overthrow not only Chronos, but all Titans (his brothers and sisters) in a war called the Titanomachy.

Beyond its mythological connections, Psiloritis is considered a Geopark, part of the natural and cultural heritage of Crete, and is protected by UNESCO.  It is a geologist’s paradise, as it has unusual combinations of volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, some of which are a million years old.  The plant life is not only beautiful and fragrant, with wild thyme and sage patches like in the other gorges I have visited, but also includes orchids and tulips which are exclusive to this region.    Some parts of the park are also dotted with cylindrical stone structures built by shepherds, called ‘mitata’, which are used to make amazing local cheeses.

To discover the flavours of Crete and sort out your travel needs, contact Karma Travel!  Their friendly experts can advise you and will help you find small wonders you did not know existed in this Mediterranean island.

Holy Peace!

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After my recent visits to archaeological sites, I decided to go to a beach.  A touristy beach.  Anywhere else, ‘touristy’ might be synonymous with ‘tacky’ and can rarely be paired with ‘charming’, yet towns in Crete often manage to make this rarity happen, and this is one of those happy exceptions.

Agia Galini (‘Holy Peace’) is roughly opposite Matala in a small gulf in southern Crete.   It is a little village circling a harbour.  Although it bustles with activity, I didn’t see any cars, so there were children playing and wandering about. I really like the family-friendliness of small towns in Crete.

I sat in a taverna that attracted me with the promise of a ‘thieves’ oven’.  I had lamb cooked in this fashion.  It turns out that a ‘thieve’s oven’ is a clay pot buried in the ground.  The fire sits atop the clay pot and conceals the ‘stolen’ meat of a goat or lamb whilst it cooks without blatantly revealing the mischief through smell and smoke -like a spit roast would.  Well, my verdict is that stealing the lamb was probably worth it!  This was absolutely scrummy.

Wandering up the hill, I came across a mythical take-off platform: the rock where it is said that Daedalus and Icarus set flight.   The story says that Daedalus had come to Crete banished from Athens, where the great inventor had slain his nephew (his apprentice) for fear that he would surpass the master’s abilities.  So Daedalus landed in Crete, where he worked for King Minos.  The king had asked him to build a labyrinth to keep the mighty Minotaur inside.  Daedalus built a maze so complicated that it was impossible to escape from it.

This was the case until young and brave prince Theseus came to Crete and offered himself as willing bait to enter the Labyrinth.  He would attempt to slay the Minotaur.  What he wanted was to end a vengeful ritual whereby a number of youths from his land were presented to the Minotaur every seventh year to be killed by this savage beast.   Theseus was handsome and witty, and stole the heart of King Minos’ daughter, Ariadne.  Madly in love, the princess decided she would help save her prince and flee with him.  She gave him a spindle and instructed him to unravel the thread as he went into the Labyrinth so he could find the way out.  So Theseus slay the Minotaur and successfully fled the Labyrinth, taking Princess Ariadne with him.

King Minos was furious.  Filled with rage at the builder of the Labyrinth, he imprisoned Daedalus an his son, Icarus, in a tower.  There was no way out.

The inventor came up with a solution, though.  He built wings made of beeswax and feathers, and successfully managed to learn to fly.   Daedalus strapped on his wings, and instructed Icarus to do the same.  There was a caveat: they could not approach the sun, because the beeswax would melt, and they couldn’t brush the foam of the sea, because it would ruin the feathers.  Both of them flew high into the sky.  It was so exhilarating that Icarus forgot the warnings and got too close to the sun, whereby his wings melted and he inevitably fell into the sea and drowned.  The island nearest to where the boy drowned is called Icaria, in his honour.

If you want to visit the mythical Agia Galini, or would like to set off to the islands without risking the fate of Icarus, contact Karma Travel!  They will sort out your airplane tickets, transfers, accommodation, guided tours, and organise visits to vineyards, olive groves, raki distilleries, and show you Crete’s traditions.  Come and experience authentic Crete with a tour organised by Karma Travel!

Agia Triada

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I’m visiting the remains of a summer residence of the king of Phaistos.  The site is named after what is now a ghost village, destroyed in the 19th century war of independence from the Turks -Agia Triada.

Archaeological finds have revealed that the site was inhabited as early as 3,000 BC.   The remains exposed to the public belong to a seaside villa, apparently built around 1,600 BC in the heyday of the Minoan civilisation. The palace was then destroyed about a hundred years later, and underwent several transformations throughout time. An imposing Megaron was built upon the remains of the walls of the villa, with further edifications enclosing an inner courtyard where public gatherings and ceremonies must have been held.

Zoom into the future, and a temple to Zeus was erected here.  Further down the line, around 1400 AD,  a Byzantine church dedicated to Agios Giorgos tou Galata, which still stands today, was built on this site.  The church is a small jewel in that it contains some fairly well preserved  and beautiful Byzantine frescoes.

My mind spins at the thought of a small city whose same stone structures were in use for nearly 3,000 years (through successive constructive and rebuilding phases)!  Surely, this is proof that there is something very special about this island, and this site in particular.

Some of the most impressive pieces excavated from this site include delicately crafted clay vessels and sarcophagi extracted from a series of tombs discovered to the northeast of the palatial complex.  I recall having seen them in the Archaeological Museum in Heraklion.  Sadly, I don’t think I paid enough attention to them.  I think another visit is due now that I have more context, and I will definitely need to look at the sarcophagi in more detail!

If you would like to come here and discover the mysteries of Agia Triada, contact Karma Travel!  They will be able to advise on transport, guided tours, and accommodation.

Gortyna

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Past beautiful rolling hills covered with olive groves, which will soon be picked, I arrived at Gortyna. We are greeted by a number of massive statues in an open-air museum just by a Byzantine basilica which dates back to the fifth century and is dedicated to Agios Titus, the first bishop of the area, and also the addressee of one of the epistles of St Paul which are contained in the New Testament.

There is also a plane tree with a plaque which tells visitors that it was under that very tree that Zeus seduced Europa, and this tree was made to remain forever green to commemmorate their love.

Across the road and past a grove of olive trees are the ruins of what must have been a spectacular city. Archaeologists have established that the site had been inhabited since Neolithic times. Walking along the paths that criscross the site, I can’t help feeling a sense of humble awe, and wanting to tread carefully. There are bits of the excavated ruins all along the path, and I have a sense of my footsteps echoing those of the ancient inhabitants of this city. Excavations continue on the site. In fact, I’m told, just last year archaeologists unearthed a few huge statues, lamps and mable slabs sculpted with scenes of battles and myths just in the Odeon.

Behind the Odeon, there is a very important document preserved in stone. The myth of king Radamanthus and his code of law, which I mentioned in a previous post, becomes a passage of history at Gortyna: on a wall behind the Odeon is an ancient code of law that dates back to the 6th century B.C.

The Gortyna Code displayed behind the theatre is written in Dorian Greek. The text flows from right to left, then the next line from left to right, and so on. Effectively, the reader must read backwards every other line! The code describes family relationships in this society, including marriage, divorce, inheritances, adoptions, and custody rights; it also describes their approach to property (including slavery as a form of property at the time) and contracts. It does not contain any criminal laws or procedures, which has led archaeologists to think that this is but one fraction of a much longer document. It is also interesting because it represents a transitional period from a matriarchal to a patriarchal society, where women’s rights to property and inheritance were changing to a less favourable stance, but still allowed women to hold the right to their share of property after divorce or after being widowed, and recognised women’s right to hold property independently of their husbands.

The code in the tunnel behind the theatre was preserved when the Romans reused stones from previous buildings to build their own. Some parts have been lovingly preserved and restored when found in excavations. A few slabs were found when digging a water-mill, for example.

Roman Gortyna was the most important Cretan city of its time. When the Romans invaded the island, this became the capital of the island. The Roman Ruins are impressive. There is the residence of the Roman governor of Crete and Cyrene, the Praetor, which dates back to the 1st century A.D. There are also baths, a shrine dedicated to Augustus, a court of law, and a temple dedicated to the Nymphs, which judging by the size of its cistern, must have had fabulous fountains. The Roman city must have been very impressive. It was destroyed in 825 when Andalusian invaders took the island and destroyed Gortyna when its leaders refused to surrender.

There is also an Acropolis on Agios Ioannis hill, which is considered part of Gortyna. This seems to have been ‘holy land’ for a long time, as there are evidences of human activities here in the Neolithic period. A temple dedicated to Athena was erected here, and during Byzantine times, a basilica was built on the site. There are also the remains of a Roman fortress, built here in the 7th century.

If you would like to visit these sites, get in touch with Karma Travel to organise your transportation and a guided tour, as well as accommodation in the area. They will be able to advise you as only local experts can!  They can also advise if your tour of this area can be combined with a visit to the neighbouring olive groves when it’s time for the olive harvest.

Phaistos

Phaistos, Crete, Greece

I’ve arrived at Phaistos and I am gobsmacked by the spectacular setting of this site.  It is high on a hil, overlooking a plain framed by mountains, with the sea rolling just below the hills, and towering Mount Psiloritis just north.   My guide explains that the site had many stages, and excavations have revealed strata that goes back up to Neolithic times.  The topmost layer seems to have been the work of a single architect -unusual, I’m told.  The layout is easy to grasp, which is not the case in other palace ruins I visited, like Knossos.   The latest rebuilding of the palace dates ack to 1700 BC, and it’s evident that ruins upon ruins are layered under the surface.  The final architect built on top of the remains of previous buildings, and in some places staircases belonging to different construction stages merge or converge, giving a picture of architectural intricacy.

The description of an architect that took care of creating a functional and yet aesthetically pleasing environment makes me think of an ancient Frank Lloyd Wright, thinking of how to blend his structures with the spectacular views of the hill, planning his courtyards to follow the uneven surfaceof the hill, and walls to almost frame the view of the Messara plain below and Mount Psiloritis.  It seems that the design was such that palace structures were conceived to have one side enclosed by a wall, and the other by a major mountain.

This was one of three major cities in Crete, and seems to have been an important religious site, as well as a hub of economic activity.  My guide explains that archaeologists have found inscriptions and some records, all in Linear A, which remain undeciphered.  The name of the city, Phaistos, has been confirmed by inscriptions on coins and in Linear B inscriptions referring to this site which have been found in Knossos.  One fine example of ancient scripture is, in fact, the Disc of Phaistos, which I saw in the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion.  I am marvelled by the explanation that the spiralling characters carefully engraved on the disc were in fact ‘seals’ pressed on the clay disc, which have been claimed to be the first instance of a printing press featuring interchangeable signs.  It is mindboggling that the technology was first conceived here in the second millenium BC, but only took off in the 15th century AD!

I imagine myself as a spectator sitting in the theatre and marvelling at the view of the landscape surrounding it.  The dwellers of this ancient city must have felt privileged to live here!

The ancient stories seem to confirm the idea that it was a privilege to live here.  It is said that Phaistos was ruled by King Radamanthus, brother of Minos, the king of Knossos.   Radamanthus was  a just and noble king, and gave the island an excellent code of laws, which was copied elsewhere, not least by the Spartans.  Because of his inflexible integrity, this king was made one of the judges of the dead in the underworld.

It is also said that Phaistos was safeguarded by a bronze giant, Talos, who had been made by Daedalus when Zeus ordered him to craft a means to protect his beloved Europa.  So the bronze giant patrolled the shores of Crete and endlessly watched over Phaistos to protect the queen.  He was also famous for throwing boulders at approaching ships.  The bronze giant, forged much like a lost-wax statue, had one vein which went from his neck to his ankle, and was bound shut by just one bronze nail.

When Jason and the Argonauts approached Crete after snatching the Golden Fleece, Talos guarded the island by throwing massive boulders at the Argo.  The sneaky Argonauts called upon Medea to use her powers to drive him mad. The sorceress drugged him and deceived him, saying that she would render him immortal by removing the nail. The giant bled molten lead until he eventually died.

If you want to visit Phaistos and make the most of your time here, contact Karma Travel and arrange your transport and a guided tour of the site.  It will come alive with stories in a way that you could never appreciate just by looking at the ruins!

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