Agia Triada

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I’m visiting the remains of a summer residence of the king of Phaistos.  The site is named after what is now a ghost village, destroyed in the 19th century war of independence from the Turks -Agia Triada.

Archaeological finds have revealed that the site was inhabited as early as 3,000 BC.   The remains exposed to the public belong to a seaside villa, apparently built around 1,600 BC in the heyday of the Minoan civilisation. The palace was then destroyed about a hundred years later, and underwent several transformations throughout time. An imposing Megaron was built upon the remains of the walls of the villa, with further edifications enclosing an inner courtyard where public gatherings and ceremonies must have been held.

Zoom into the future, and a temple to Zeus was erected here.  Further down the line, around 1400 AD,  a Byzantine church dedicated to Agios Giorgos tou Galata, which still stands today, was built on this site.  The church is a small jewel in that it contains some fairly well preserved  and beautiful Byzantine frescoes.

My mind spins at the thought of a small city whose same stone structures were in use for nearly 3,000 years (through successive constructive and rebuilding phases)!  Surely, this is proof that there is something very special about this island, and this site in particular.

Some of the most impressive pieces excavated from this site include delicately crafted clay vessels and sarcophagi extracted from a series of tombs discovered to the northeast of the palatial complex.  I recall having seen them in the Archaeological Museum in Heraklion.  Sadly, I don’t think I paid enough attention to them.  I think another visit is due now that I have more context, and I will definitely need to look at the sarcophagi in more detail!

If you would like to come here and discover the mysteries of Agia Triada, contact Karma Travel!  They will be able to advise on transport, guided tours, and accommodation.

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Gortyna

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Past beautiful rolling hills covered with olive groves, which will soon be picked, I arrived at Gortyna. We are greeted by a number of massive statues in an open-air museum just by a Byzantine basilica which dates back to the fifth century and is dedicated to Agios Titus, the first bishop of the area, and also the addressee of one of the epistles of St Paul which are contained in the New Testament.

There is also a plane tree with a plaque which tells visitors that it was under that very tree that Zeus seduced Europa, and this tree was made to remain forever green to commemmorate their love.

Across the road and past a grove of olive trees are the ruins of what must have been a spectacular city. Archaeologists have established that the site had been inhabited since Neolithic times. Walking along the paths that criscross the site, I can’t help feeling a sense of humble awe, and wanting to tread carefully. There are bits of the excavated ruins all along the path, and I have a sense of my footsteps echoing those of the ancient inhabitants of this city. Excavations continue on the site. In fact, I’m told, just last year archaeologists unearthed a few huge statues, lamps and mable slabs sculpted with scenes of battles and myths just in the Odeon.

Behind the Odeon, there is a very important document preserved in stone. The myth of king Radamanthus and his code of law, which I mentioned in a previous post, becomes a passage of history at Gortyna: on a wall behind the Odeon is an ancient code of law that dates back to the 6th century B.C.

The Gortyna Code displayed behind the theatre is written in Dorian Greek. The text flows from right to left, then the next line from left to right, and so on. Effectively, the reader must read backwards every other line! The code describes family relationships in this society, including marriage, divorce, inheritances, adoptions, and custody rights; it also describes their approach to property (including slavery as a form of property at the time) and contracts. It does not contain any criminal laws or procedures, which has led archaeologists to think that this is but one fraction of a much longer document. It is also interesting because it represents a transitional period from a matriarchal to a patriarchal society, where women’s rights to property and inheritance were changing to a less favourable stance, but still allowed women to hold the right to their share of property after divorce or after being widowed, and recognised women’s right to hold property independently of their husbands.

The code in the tunnel behind the theatre was preserved when the Romans reused stones from previous buildings to build their own. Some parts have been lovingly preserved and restored when found in excavations. A few slabs were found when digging a water-mill, for example.

Roman Gortyna was the most important Cretan city of its time. When the Romans invaded the island, this became the capital of the island. The Roman Ruins are impressive. There is the residence of the Roman governor of Crete and Cyrene, the Praetor, which dates back to the 1st century A.D. There are also baths, a shrine dedicated to Augustus, a court of law, and a temple dedicated to the Nymphs, which judging by the size of its cistern, must have had fabulous fountains. The Roman city must have been very impressive. It was destroyed in 825 when Andalusian invaders took the island and destroyed Gortyna when its leaders refused to surrender.

There is also an Acropolis on Agios Ioannis hill, which is considered part of Gortyna. This seems to have been ‘holy land’ for a long time, as there are evidences of human activities here in the Neolithic period. A temple dedicated to Athena was erected here, and during Byzantine times, a basilica was built on the site. There are also the remains of a Roman fortress, built here in the 7th century.

If you would like to visit these sites, get in touch with Karma Travel to organise your transportation and a guided tour, as well as accommodation in the area. They will be able to advise you as only local experts can!  They can also advise if your tour of this area can be combined with a visit to the neighbouring olive groves when it’s time for the olive harvest.

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